THIS IS A RESPONSE TO DISCUSSION BELOW, PLEASE USE APA & IN-TEXT CITATIONS. NO MORE THAN 200 WORDS.
I was always taught in nursing school that pain is what the patient says that it is. We cannot feel what the patient is feeling, so we have to believe the patient and what they are telling us. “McCaffery defined pain as ‘whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he says it does’” (Huether &McCance, 2017, p.336). Pain effects each and every person differently. There are many different types of pain caused by many different diagnoses and issues. “Acute pain is transient, usually lasting seconds to days, sometimes up to 3 months. It begins suddenly and is relieved after the chemical mediators that stimulate pain receptors are removed” (Huether & McCance, 2017, p.340). When I think of acute pain, I think of getting a shot. A shot hurts while we are receiving the shot but is quickly relieved once the shot is over. “Visceral pain often radiates (spreads away from the actual site of the pain) or is referred. Referred pain is felt in an area removed or distant from its point of origin- the area of referred pain is supplied by the same spinal segment as the actual site of pain” (Huether & McCance, 2017, p.340). An example of referred pain would be left arm pain during a heart attack. Pain that is radiating away from the actual site of where the hurt is. “Chronic or persistent pain has been defined as lasting for more than 3 to 6 months and is pain lasting well beyond the expected healing time”(Huether & McCance, 2017, p.340). We hear of a lot of people struggling with chronic back pain.
Pain can feel throbbing, stabbing, aching, burning, cramping, squeezing, etc. There are different factors that affect pain as well. “There are important age and sex differences in the clinical presentations of chronic pain patients. Some older patients present with unique clinical profiles that may reflect cohort differences, and/or physiological or psychological adjustment processes. There appears to be a greater number of distinct chronic pain presentations among females” (Cook & Chastain, 2001, para.5). Age and gender are just 2 factors that can affect pain and the way it is perceived. “In general, the prevalence of chronic pain has been found to be 50% or more among people aged 65 years or older” (Karjalainen, Saltevo, Tiihonen, Haanpää, Kautiainen, & Mäntyselkä, 2018, p.6). Different diseases that patients have can cause patients to have pain. Ethnicity can also be a factor of pain. If we think about sickle cell patients, it occurs more in African Americans and can cause pain during a sickle cell crisis. Age does not affect who can get sickle cell but can affect pain. Sickle cell presents at birth but usually patients do not have any issues until the age of 5 or 6. Another example would be having a tonsillectomy. Everyone states that the pain and recovery is so much easier on young children than in adults. These examples just go to show that everyone perceives pain differently depending on different factors like age, gender, ethnicity, and diseases.
Cook, A. J., & Chastain, D. C. (2001). The Classification of Patients with Chronic Pain: Age and
Sex Differences. Pain Research and Management, (3), 142.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis,
Karjalainen, M., Saltevo, J., Tiihonen, M., Haanpää, M., Kautiainen, H., & Mäntyselkä, P.
(2018). Frequent pain in older people with and without diabetes – Finnish community-based study. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), 73.
Expert Solution Preview
Pain is a complex and subjective experience that varies among individuals based on different factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, and underlying diseases. As healthcare professionals, it is important to understand and acknowledge the subjective nature of pain and believe what the patient expresses. This response will elaborate on the different types of pain, including acute, visceral, and chronic pain, and their characteristics. Additionally, it will discuss the impact of age, gender, and ethnicity on the perception of pain.
Pain can be classified into various types, each with its own distinct characteristics. Acute pain is short-term and typically lasts seconds to days, or up to 3 months. It starts abruptly and subsides once the chemical mediators that stimulate pain receptors are removed (Huether & McCance, 2017). For example, the pain experienced during a shot is a classic example of acute pain.
Visceral pain, on the other hand, often radiates or is referred to other areas away from the actual site of pain. Referred pain is felt in a region remote from its origin and shares the same spinal segment as the primary site of pain (Huether & McCance, 2017). For instance, during a heart attack, a patient may experience left arm pain that radiates from the heart.
Chronic or persistent pain is defined as lasting for more than 3 to 6 months and persists beyond the expected healing time (Huether & McCance, 2017). Chronic pain is often associated with various diseases and conditions, such as chronic back pain, and can significantly impact a person’s quality of life.
Moreover, pain perception can be influenced by different factors, including age, gender, and ethnicity. Research has found that older adults, particularly those aged 65 years or older, have a higher prevalence of chronic pain (Karjalainen et al., 2018). Additionally, clinical presentations of chronic pain may differ between male and female patients, with females exhibiting a greater number of distinct chronic pain profiles (Cook & Chastain, 2001).
Overall, pain is a multifaceted phenomenon that is influenced by various factors and experienced differently by each individual. As healthcare professionals, it is crucial to consider these factors and respect the patient’s subjective experience of pain to provide appropriate and effective pain management interventions.
Cook, A. J., & Chastain, D. C. (2001). The Classification of Patients with Chronic Pain: Age and Sex Differences. Pain Research and Management, (3), 142.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Karjalainen, M., Saltevo, J., Tiihonen, M., Haanpää, M., Kautiainen, H., & Mäntyselkä, P. (2018). Frequent pain in older people with and without diabetes – Finnish community-based study. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), 73.