Is the ‘freezing hypothesis’ still important in understanding the

This topic is based on Party systems. The essay will have to discuss which dimension of political conflict (economic or cultural) is more useful in helping us understand recent parliamentary campaigns, referendums, and elections in Western Europe. Also, you will find a paper uploaded which clearly states some VERY important steps to take for the essay and you MUST read it. In the paper uploaded, in the area that says ‘Materials’ it states that to write this essay we should use the lectures available on our KEATS website and the readings attached to it. As well as any scientific literature that you find relevant but in this case. I will attach the lectures needed, as well as the readings needed specifically for this essay question. If you have any questions do not hesitate to contact me.

The reading list will be listed here, starting from the required readings and ending with the additional ones (as for the sentences that have stars at the beginning, it means that they are required readings).

Reading these will be helpful for answering the essay, as well as adding as much references as possible and these would make 11 references which is enough. The readings (some I will upload and the others you can find on the internet):

**Gallagher, M., Laver, M., & Mair, P. (2011). Representative Government in Modern Europe.McGraw-Hill (Chapter 9) **Sartori, G. (1990) ‘A Typology of Party Systems’, in P. Mair (ed.) The West European Party SystemOxford: Oxford University Press, 316-349 *Hooghe, L., Marks, G., & Wilson, C. J. (2002). ‘Does left/right structure party positions on European integration?’ Comparative Political Studies35(8): 965-989. *Kriesi, H., Grande, E., Lachat, R., Dolezal, M., Bornschier, S., & Frey, T. (2006). ‘Globalization and the transformation of the national political space: Six European countries compared.’ European Journal of Political Research45(6): 921-956. Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2018). ‘Cleavage theory meets Europe’s crises: Lipset, Rokkan, and the transnational cleavage.’ Journal of European Public Policy 25(1): 109-135. Marks, G., Hooghe, L., Nelson, M., & Edwards, E. (2006). ‘Party competition and European integration in the East and West: Different structure, same causality.’ Comparative Political Studies39(2): 155-175.

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